Women’s Participation in Metro and Railways

Breaking Down Barriers: Women Defying Norms in the Male-Dominated Railway Sector

Women’s Participation in Metro and Railways
Women’s Participation in Metro and Railways
InnoMetro 2024 Delegate Registration


In the dynamic realm of metro and railway systems, where progress reverberates through bustling stations and clattering wheels, the story of women’s participation unfolds quietly. International Women’s Day prompts a crucial exploration of the gender dynamics, societal norms, and industry structures shaping women’s involvement in this traditionally male-dominated domain.

While the metro and railway sector is pivotal for urban and inter-city connectivity, it grapples with a stark gender imbalance in its workforce. In India, where women significantly contribute to the commuter base, their representation within the industry remains notably low. Deeply rooted societal stereotypes, cultural norms, and persistent safety concerns have become barriers hindering women from navigating careers in this sector. Challenges range from safety concerns during late-night shifts to a lack of facilities designed for women.

As we traverse the annals of history, the traditional image of railways as male-dominated spaces is being dismantled. A paradigm shift is evident, particularly with the emergence of all-women crews, symbolising a departure from historical gender norms within the railway workforce. The clattering wheels and bustling stations echo not only with the rhythmic beat of progress but also with the footsteps of women who have taken their place in a domain once considered exclusively for men.

This transformation is not without its challenges. Deeply entrenched societal stereotypes, cultural norms, and persistent safety concerns have erected barriers for women seeking careers within the traditionally male-dominated railway sector. The issues faced by women within the industry are manifold, ranging from safety concerns during late-night shifts to the lack of adequate facilities designed with women in mind. Stereotypes regarding gender roles continue to linger, impeding the professional growth and recognition of women within the sector.

However, amidst these challenges, stories of resilience and determination emerge. Women are actively participating in initiatives to change the narrative. From advocating for safer work environments to challenging stereotypes and discriminatory practices, they are at the forefront of ushering in a new era of gender inclusivity within railway infrastructure.

This cover story unravels the layers of women’s participation in the metro and railway sector, examining the current scenario in India and proposing a roadmap for a more inclusive future. Envisioning a future where railway tracks lead to equal opportunities, irrespective of gender, this transformative journey aims for connectivity and diversity in the metro and railway landscape.

The Current Landscape in India – Gender Disparities in Earnings

The data-driven overview from ‘The Wire’ Report highlights several aspects of gender disparity in earnings, providing a comprehensive view of the challenges faced by women in different employment categories and income levels. Despite the critical nature of the data, there are positive aspects to consider:

Historical Progress – The historical perspective reveals positive developments as the gender earnings gap in 2004 was highest among the poorest earners and lowest in the fourth quartile. The subsequent narrowing of this gap from 2004 to 2017 signifies positive strides.

Quartile-Specific Improvement – Noteworthy progress is evident in the narrowing of the gender earnings gap across all quartiles, particularly in the second, third, and fourth quartiles. This signals a more equitable distribution of earnings. 

Decile Analysis Insights – The decile analysis offers insights into the reduction of the gender pay gap for higher-income groups, indicating positive trends as women move up the income distribution. This suggests potential improvements in workplace conditions and opportunities for higher-educated women.

Recognition of Caste and Religion-Based Gaps – The report recognizes and acknowledges caste and religion-based earnings gaps, shedding light on multiple dimensions of inequality. This acknowledgment is crucial for developing inclusive policies that address various forms of discrimination.

PCN1lxTFpJXj36dPxnlrFkvvuZEJ1V sZceE94KfaVVpBrc3KsUoAQ0rtZeVrY A4rFb2oXO0kidZEj Mc3TvfD4PvJ1vGN61tHA6zJ EdP529BBaPvKz39Lmv4P6GuiuCR149mPr7wIVJYOXDm4w

Drivers of Change – Positive shifts are attributed to increased awareness of gender discrimination, anti-discrimination laws, and evolving social norms. The substantial rise in women’s educational attainment and the availability of regular-wage jobs further contribute to closing the gender pay gap.

Empowering the Female Workforce – The structural transformation in the female workforce, with older and less educated women making way for younger, more educated counterparts, indicates a positive trend toward empowering women in the labour market. 

Strategies for Equality – Identifying strategies to bridge the wage gap, such as reducing workplace discrimination and providing access to higher education, demonstrates a proactive approach toward fostering gender equality. 

d0uGkJqgWQFyut6GnnzdAXGyZYPLd3FRx55uwOn41sR0rNFm Woimpn3VGwEY6rD gDbJRLst7SGToGediluOquxYmtb2lrt7OAm okGXII7G8wenp0trky

Critical Analysis

Persistent Unexplained Gaps: While progress is evident, the larger “unexplained” portion of earnings for women, especially when compared to SC/ST workers or Muslim workers, highlights persistent challenges. This suggests that more nuanced efforts are required to address discrimination and bias.

Urban-Rural Disparities: The more pronounced unexplained gender disparity in rural areas compared to urban areas indicates that challenges persist in certain regions. Tailored interventions are essential to address the unique dynamics contributing to gender disparities in rural settings.

Caste and Private Sector Challenges: The larger unexplained gender earnings gaps in the private sector, in contrast to caste gaps, point to specific challenges in private industry settings. Addressing discrimination based on gender, particularly in private enterprises, is crucial for comprehensive gender equality.

While positive strides have been made, a critical examination reveals the need for targeted interventions to address remaining disparities. The nuanced understanding provided by this data emphasises the importance of ongoing efforts to create a more inclusive and equal landscape for women in India’s workforce.

Navigating Delhi Via Metro

In dissecting the current trends in women’s commuting, with a specific focus on the Delhi Metro, several nuanced reasons underline the growing preference for this mode of transportation:

Ease of Travel –  The graph unmistakably highlights Delhi Metro’s prominence as women’s preferred commuting mode. The ease of travel is a key factor contributing to this preference. With a well-connected network, timely schedules, and efficient services, the metro system offers a convenient and hassle-free commuting experience.

P2y2xtMZnIX9omNGdEBO06Xe2GStFrhUpore7zaM5TrPbDzSWEbnL8zJUbg gWLYijKJy3

Cost-Effective and Comfortable- As commute times increase, the Delhi Metro emerges as a cost-effective solution for women. Its affordability, coupled with a commitment to safety and cleanliness, creates an environment that women find both economical and comfortable. The provision of dedicated women’s coaches further enhances the sense of security during travel.

Women-Friendly Environment – In response to the challenges of growing commute times, the Delhi Metro stands out as a provider of a safe and secure environment for women.

The commitment to a women-friendly atmosphere, including well-lit stations, surveillance systems, and security personnel, fosters a sense of security crucial for women navigating urban spaces.

Age Dynamics – Analyzing the age dynamics, the graph reveals a higher frequency of metro usage among young women. This can be attributed to the fast-paced travel experience that suits the preferences of younger individuals. The hustle and bustle in stations, dynamic ambience, and quick turnaround times align more seamlessly with the preferences and adaptability of the youth.


Efficiency and Connectivity – The efficiency and connectivity offered by the Delhi Metro play a pivotal role in its growing popularity among women. With multiple routes covering extensive areas, the metro system ensures connectivity, making it a time-efficient choice for women, particularly those juggling multiple responsibilities and commitments.

Environmental Considerations – Women’s preference for the metro can also be linked to environmental considerations. The eco-friendly nature of mass transit aligns with the values of a conscientious and environmentally aware demographic, contributing to the metro’s appeal among women who prioritise sustainable modes of transportation.

The increasing preference of women for the Delhi Metro can be attributed to a combination of convenience, safety, affordability, and alignment with modern lifestyles. Recognising and understanding these factors provides insights for further optimising urban transportation systems to meet the evolving needs of women commuters.

Women Crew – RRTS Project

NCRTC, the driving force behind the ambitious RRTS project in the NCR, has observed societal change and actively contributed to it. In its commitment to fostering gender equity, the organisation embarked on a two-fold mission: revolutionising inter-city commutes with the RRTS project and championing gender inclusivity.

RRTS, a rail-based high-speed transit system, is designed to be a game-changer committed to making journeys fast, reliable, safe, comfortable, efficient, and sustainable. The 82-km long Delhi-Ghaziabad-Meerut corridor is set to redefine inter-city commuting, bringing people and places closer.

Women at the Helm of Project Implementation

Recognizing the unique needs of women commuters, especially those in suburban areas, NCRTC positions RRTS as a boon. Families often restrict women from commuting alone due to safety concerns, limiting their access to opportunities. NCRTC aims to change this narrative, emphasising that an empowered woman contributes to the nation’s growth by becoming doctors, engineers, sportspersons, and visionary leaders. Addressing the safety concerns voiced by women, NCRTC focuses on making RRTS a gender-inclusive public transport system. Initiatives include improved connectivity, well-lit pick-up and drop areas, CCTV surveillance, security personnel deployment, dedicated women’s coaches, reserved seats, nursing rooms, and emergency buttons for distress situations.

NCRTC not only prioritises the needs of women commuters but also integrates women into its project implementation team. Women engineers are leading challenging civil construction assignments, showcasing that women are not just beneficiaries but active contributors to the project’s success.

Gems of Metro and Rail Transport 

Women are not just contributing; they are leading the charge, reshaping the narrative of women’s empowerment and participation in the transportation sector. The stories of women executive engineers in DMRC (Delhi Metro Rail Corporation) and women managers in RRTS projects serve as beacons of inspiration for young leaders, paving the way for enhanced gender equality in the economic forum.

Aprajita Nagpal 

A Manager in the Architecture team, exemplifies the pivotal role played by women in shaping the RRTS corridor. Her efforts in defining the architectural nuances, ensuring seamless station transitions, and incorporating practical yet aesthetic designs contribute significantly to the project’s identity.

Roles and Responsibilities

  • Led project planning, coordination, and execution of RRTS projects.
  • Overseeing project timelines, resource management, and strategic decision-making.
  • Inspiring and championing women empowerment within the transportation sector.
  • Advocating for inclusive work cultures and policies supporting gender equality.
  • Fostering environments where women feel empowered and valued.

Ashlesha Yadav

In the dynamic world of metro and railway systems, Women Executive Engineers play a pivotal role, contributing to the seamless functioning of institutions like DMRC (Delhi Metro Rail Corporation) and fostering women empowerment within the sector.

Roles and Responsibilities

  • Overseeing project planning, design, and execution within DMRC.
  • Ensuring the efficiency and safety of metro infrastructure.
  • Managing construction, maintenance, and safety protocols.
  • Making strategic decisions for the success of metro projects.
  • Breaking stereotypes and challenging traditional gender norms.


Breaking Barriers – Women executive engineers at DMRC and women managers in RRTS projects have shattered traditional norms, assuming critical roles in the planning, design, and execution of transformative transportation initiatives. Their responsibilities encompass a spectrum of tasks, from overseeing construction and maintenance to strategic decision-making and project coordination. By excelling in roles historically dominated by men, they are not just breaking barriers but actively challenging stereotypes.

Fostering Women’s Empowerment in Metro and Railways – These women leaders are not just contributors but champions of women’s empowerment within the metro and railways sector. By actively participating in the planning and executing of major transit projects, they demonstrate that women can and should be integral to shaping the future of urban transportation. Their commitment extends beyond their roles, inspiring other women to envision and pursue careers in engineering, project management, and related fields.

Inspiration for Young Leaders – The stories of these women serve as powerful narratives for young leaders aspiring to make a mark in traditionally male-dominated sectors. Their journeys exemplify resilience, competence, and the ability to navigate challenges. By sharing their experiences and achievements, these trailblazers become mentors, providing a roadmap for the next generation of female leaders eager to contribute to the dynamic and evolving field of transportation infrastructure.

Paving the Way for Gender Equality – As women executive engineers and managers, they are not just contributing to their respective projects but actively shaping inclusive work cultures. Initiatives promoting work-life balance, mentorship programs, and policies supporting women in the workplace are integral to their leadership. By fostering environments where women feel empowered and valued, they contribute to dismantling gender barriers and creating pathways for increased gender equality within the economic realm.

The Vision for a More Inclusive Future – The roles played by these women in DMRC and RRTS projects extend beyond their accomplishments; they contribute to a broader vision for a more inclusive future. By championing gender inclusivity, they are architects of change, laying the foundation for a workforce where diversity is celebrated and opportunities are accessible to everyone, irrespective of gender.

The narratives of women executive engineers and managers in the metro and RRTS projects are narratives of empowerment, resilience, and leadership. Their journeys inspire, their contributions redefine industry norms, and their commitment paves the way for better gender equality in the economic realm. As these women continue to shape the future of urban transportation, they leave an indelible mark, urging others to follow suit and actively contribute to building a more inclusive and diverse workforce in the metro and railways sector.

Transport Infrastructure and Labor Force Participation

As we traverse the tracks of progress within transport infrastructure, the intricate interplay between gender dynamics and labour force participation becomes an essential facet of the narrative, especially concerning women in India.

In the bustling landscape of emerging economies like India, the role of transport infrastructure in shaping workforce dynamics is paramount. The accessibility and efficiency of public transport systems play a pivotal role in facilitating or hindering women’s participation in the workforce. For many, especially women, reliable and safe transportation is not just a convenience but a prerequisite for economic engagement.

Public transport, often the lifeblood of urban areas, can catalyze increased labour force participation, particularly among women. In emerging economies, where most women may not have access to private vehicles, a robust public transport system becomes an enabler, breaking down barriers to employment opportunities. As we delve into India’s context, the correlation between well-developed public transport infrastructure and higher female labour force participation becomes evident.

The importance of public transport extends beyond mere convenience; it fosters inclusivity by reducing the geographic constraints that might otherwise limit women’s access to employment centres. In urban settings, where economic hubs are often located far from residential areas, an efficient public transport system becomes a conduit for equal participation, mitigating the challenges of long commutes.

Rail Infrastructure and Gender Disparities

Examining gender disparities in the context of rail-based transit systems unravels a multifaceted narrative. While railways form the backbone of transportation networks, a critical analysis reveals disparities in their utilisation by men and women. This dichotomy is particularly pronounced in India, where socio-cultural factors intersect with transport infrastructure, influencing patterns of labour force participation.

The in-depth analysis unveils a decline in female labour force participation that correlates with intermodal variations in transport. Cultural expectations and safety concerns often dictate the choice of transportation modes, with women often opting for perceived safer alternatives. Despite being millions’ lifelines, railways can inadvertently contribute to gender disparities, especially if safety concerns and accessibility challenges persist.

Exploring this dynamic requires carefully examining the entire journey, from home to the workplace. In instances where rail stations lack adequate safety measures and well-lit environments, women might be deterred from utilising this mode of transportation, limiting their access to employment opportunities that are not easily accessible by other means. Addressing gender disparities in rail-based transit systems necessitates a comprehensive approach encompassing infrastructure improvements, enhanced safety measures, and targeted awareness campaigns.

As India aspires to bridge the gender gap in labour force participation, a holistic view of transport infrastructure becomes imperative. Enhancing public transport systems, particularly railways, should prioritise efficiency and inclusivity. Robust and safe rail infrastructure can serve as a conduit for women to actively participate in the workforce, contributing to economic growth and societal progress.

Tackling the Challenges: Fostering Inclusivity 

Embarking on a transformative journey to foster inclusivity within India’s metro and railway sector demands a meticulous examination of the challenges. As we delve into the intricacies of reshaping the narrative, addressing gender disparities, and encouraging increased participation of women, a comprehensive strategy emerges—a strategy that not only identifies barriers but actively works towards dismantling them.

A. The Way Forward

Encouraging More Job Openings

A fundamental shift in recruitment practices is imperative to pave the way for gender inclusivity. Diversifying the workforce begins by dismantling preconceived notions and reimagining job roles. Employers must actively seek to create an environment where women are accommodated and celebrated for their diverse skills and perspectives.

Initiatives to encourage more job openings for women should extend beyond mere rhetoric. Companies must establish clear guidelines that prioritise equal opportunities and fair representation in hiring. This involves scrutinising existing biases, ensuring gender-neutral job descriptions, and actively seeking out qualified female candidates.

Moreover, public and private stakeholders can collaborate to formulate policies that actively incentivise organisations to foster gender diversity. This collaborative effort would create a more inclusive workforce and contribute to the country’s economic and social advancement.

Dedicated Skill Training

Empowering women to take on varied roles within the metro and railway sector requires a concerted effort in skill development. Tailored training programs should address not only the technical aspects of the job but also the unique challenges women face in these environments.

Skill training initiatives should be strategic, focusing on immediate and long-term goals. Short-term programs can provide immediate skill enhancement, while long-term initiatives may involve partnerships with educational institutions to encourage female students to pursue careers traditionally dominated by men.

Government bodies, industry associations, and educational institutions can collaborate to design and implement comprehensive training modules. By aligning these programs with the sector’s evolving needs, women can be equipped with the skills necessary to thrive in roles ranging from engineering and operations to management and leadership.

Workshops and Educational Tours

Dispelling stereotypes and fostering interest among potential female candidates requires proactive engagement from the industry. Collaborating with educational institutions and hosting workshops can provide invaluable exposure, presenting the metro and railway sectors as attractive careers for young women.

Workshops can take various forms, from interactive sessions with industry professionals to hands-on experiences within railway facilities. Additionally, educational tours to operational sites can demystify the industry, presenting a tangible and exciting vision of its possibilities.

Industry leaders should actively engage with schools and colleges to incorporate rail and metro-related content into educational curricula. This strategic involvement can create a pipeline of enthusiastic and well-prepared women willing and well-equipped to contribute to the industry.

Addressing Safety Concerns

The foundation of a gender-inclusive workplace rests on a sense of safety and security. Addressing safety concerns involves more than just bolstering physical security; it requires a holistic approach encompassing the entire work environment.

Installing robust surveillance systems, well-lit spaces, and dedicated security personnel at stations and offices can enhance physical safety. However, this needs to be complemented by fostering a culture of zero tolerance for harassment within the organisation. Creating confidential reporting mechanisms, providing awareness training, and actively addressing reported incidents is essential to fostering a safe and supportive workplace for women.

Beyond the workplace, improving safety during commutes is equally crucial. Collaborations between transportation authorities, law enforcement, and community organisations can create safe transit corridors, assuring women that their journey to and from work will be secure.

Promoting Work-Life Balance

Achieving a balance between professional commitments and personal responsibilities is vital for retaining and nurturing female talent. Introducing policies promoting work-life balance is about attracting women and ensuring their sustained engagement and growth.

Flexibility in work hours allows women to navigate the demands of both professional and personal spheres. Policies such as telecommuting, compressed workweeks, and part-time options can accommodate varying needs and contribute to a more inclusive workplace.

Moreover, maternity and paternity leave policies should be revisited and designed to support both men and women in their caregiving roles. Establishing on-site or nearby childcare facilities can alleviate the burden of childcare responsibilities, enabling women to remain actively engaged in their professional pursuits.

Positive Impact

Initiatives that foster inclusivity within India’s metro and railway sector not only dismantle barriers but also pave the way for a transformative positive impact. This section explores the ripple effects of increased women’s participation, shedding light on the potential economic, societal, and cultural benefits of embracing gender diversity.

A. Elevating Inclusivity

Diverse Perspectives and Innovation

The integration of women into the metro and railway workforce injects diverse perspectives and ideas. Diverse teams are known to be more innovative, drawing upon a broader range of experiences and insights. As women contribute their unique viewpoints, the industry gains a competitive edge in problem-solving and strategic planning.

The inclusion of women in decision-making processes ensures that a variety of perspectives are considered. This leads to more effective problem-solving and fosters an organisational culture that values creativity and adaptability.

Gender-Inclusive Organizational Culture

The positive impact of increased women’s participation extends beyond numerical representation. It entails establishing a gender-inclusive organizational culture that recognises and values the contributions of all employees, regardless of gender.

Creating a workplace where diversity is actively embraced and inclusion is embedded in organisational policies results in a more cohesive and collaborative work environment. As women ascend to leadership roles, their impact reverberates through the entire industry, inspiring others and solidifying the sector as a beacon of gender equality.

B. Economic Growth

Enhanced Productivity

A gender-diverse workforce within the metro and railway sector brings tangible economic benefits. Studies consistently show that companies with diverse teams are more productive and financially successful. As women contribute their skills and ideas, the industry experiences a surge in productivity, efficiency, and overall performance.

The economic impact is not confined to the industry alone. A more productive metro and railway sector contributes to the nation’s economic growth, establishing it as a vital engine for progress.

Wider Skill Pool and Talent Retention

Actively encouraging women to participate in the sector broadens the talent pool available to the industry. By tapping into diverse skills, the metro and railway sectors can more effectively address complex challenges and adapt to technological advancements.

Additionally, fostering an inclusive workplace promotes talent retention. Women are more likely to remain in an industry that values and supports their contributions. As the sector becomes known for its gender-inclusive policies and opportunities, it attracts and retains top-tier talent, enhancing its competitiveness.

C. Societal Balance

Changing Societal Perceptions

The positive impact of increased women’s participation extends beyond organisational boundaries and permeates societal perceptions. As women take on diverse roles within the metro and railway sectors, stereotypes regarding gender-specific job roles are challenged and dismantled.

The sector becomes a trailblazer, showcasing that traditionally male-dominated fields can evolve into inclusive and equitable spaces. This shift in perception has broader implications for societal attitudes toward gender roles and contributes to dismantling deeply ingrained stereotypes.

Community Engagement and Development

Actively involving women in the metro and railway sectors fosters community engagement and development. Initiatives such as educational outreach programs, mentorship opportunities, and collaborations with local communities create a more informed and empowered workforce and contribute to developing the communities surrounding railway facilities. By investing in community development, the sector becomes a catalyst for positive change, aligning its growth with the socio-economic development of the regions it serves.

D. Enhancing the Positive Impact

Mentorship and Networking Programs

Establishing mentorship and networking programs can further enhance the positive impact of increased women’s participation. Pairing experienced professionals with newcomers provides invaluable guidance, support, and opportunities for skill development. Mentorship programs can extend beyond the workplace, involving industry leaders engaging with educational institutions. This inspires the next generation of women to consider careers in the sector and establishes a network that fosters continuous learning and growth.

Industry Recognition and Awards

Acknowledging and celebrating the contributions of women within the sector through industry recognition and awards can amplify the positive impact. Recognising achievements and innovations by women in various roles motivates current professionals and inspires others to strive for excellence. Establishing awards specifically highlighting contributions to gender inclusivity and diversity within the metro and railway industry creates a positive feedback loop, reinforcing the industry’s commitment to fostering an inclusive culture.


The challenges women face in this dynamic industry are met with resilience, innovation, and a collective commitment to change. From addressing safety concerns to promoting work-life balance, the outlined initiatives chart a course toward a future where women participate and thrive within the metro and railway workforce.

The positive impact of increased women’s participation resonates far beyond the confines of railway stations and train compartments. It reverberates through the corridors of innovation, where diverse perspectives fuel creativity and strategic thinking. The economic growth catalysed by gender diversity positions the sector as a driving force in the nation’s development.

As we envision the future, enhancing the positive impact involves continued efforts. Mentorship and networking programs, industry recognition, and awards further fortify the foundation of inclusivity. The sector becomes a beacon of positive change by celebrating achievements, fostering community engagement, and creating pathways for continuous learning.

The metamorphosis underway in India’s metro and railways is not just about tracks and stations but about forging an inclusive future. It is about creating a landscape where the clattering wheels of progress echo with the collective contributions of both men and women, where diversity is acknowledged and celebrated. The tracks of opportunity lead to enhanced connectivity and a horizon where everyone, regardless of gender, contributes to and benefits from the journey ahead. The future is not just about reaching destinations but about the transformative impact of every passenger, every employee, and every moment spent building a more inclusive, vibrant, and connected nation.


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here
Captcha verification failed!
CAPTCHA user score failed. Please contact us!

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.